08 Nov. 2016 - Giovanni Strona

20161108 Seminario Strona

Il cambiamento globale in una simulazione al computer

Presenta: Giovanni Strona

European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Directorate D - Sustainable Resources, Ispra (VA), Italy

Quali sono i meccanismi che permettono ad un ecosistema di divenire complesso? E cosa succede quando le condizioni cambiano? Il quadro mostrato da simulazioni di vita artificiale non è incoraggiante. In silico, comunità di organismi digitali raggiungono un elevato grado di stabilità plasmato dalle condizioni ambientali. Ma appena queste si modificano, sistemi storicamente stabili collassano rapidamente. Tutto ciò sembra applicarsi molto bene allo scenario naturale attuale, visto che l'azione dell'uomo e il cambiamento climatico hanno alterato in maniera sostanziale buona parte degli habitat sulla Terra. Risorse che in passato erano abbondanti sono ora rare, e questo sta mettendo in pericolo la sopravvivenza di molte specie, indipendentemente dal loro grado di adattamento. Basti pensare a macchine perfette come gli squali, messi a dura prova dalla sovrappesca. O ai grandi mammiferi minacciati dal bracconaggio e dalla perdita di habitat. Ma la lista è molto più lunga, e include specie meno appariscenti, come insetti e organismi parassiti, destinati a scomparire assieme ai loro ospiti. La natura ha impiegato milioni di anni, tentativi ed errori a diventare maestra di un gioco di cui l'uomo sta repentinamente cambiando le regole, e ora potrebbe non avere più contromosse.

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18 Ott. 2016 - Ulrike Kienel

20161018 Seminario Kienel

Linking subannual layer deposition with Limnology and Weather conditions – Lake Tiefer (NE Germany)

Presenta: Ulrike Kienel

GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Potsdam, Germany

As a virtual Institute of the Helmholtz Association, the ICLEA project (Integrated Climate and Landscape Evolution Analysis), seeks to integrate time scales for a comprehensive view of landscape changes and driving processes in the past for a better anticipation of future changes. Along the time axis, the study combines past proxydata in sub-annual resolution from trees and lakes with documentary and remote sensing data and with geosystem monitoring of hydrology, soil, trees, and lakes. In the study area, the NE-German – Polish Lowlands, lakes are a major element of the terrestrial environment. Monitoring of the deep, temporally meromictic, lake Tiefer, (90 km NNW from Berlin), started in March 2012. Weather and lake conditions during spring and summer 2012 -2014 differed strongly. At the same time, the potential lake proxies sampled in sediment traps (below epi- and metalimnion 30 d increment, and at the lake bottom 15 d increment) showed considerable differences in their characteristics. Characteristics are trapping rates of organic and inorganic matter and CaCO3, stable isotope ratios of organic matter (C, N) and CaCO3 (C, O), and plankton assemblage composition (e.g. diatoms). This dataset suggests relations between lake and weather conditions and the proxy characteristics. The relations were tested using instrumental, documented, and modelled past conditions and sediment data from the youngest, sub-annually laminated (varved) record. First results will be presented.

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06 Ott. 2016 - Rosa Galvez-Cloutier

20161006 Seminario Galvez

The human and environmental disaster at Lac Mégantic: the event, the impacts and the lessons to be learned

Presenta: Rosa Galvez-Cloutier

Department of Civil and Water Engineering, Laval University, Quebec, Canada

On the night of July 5, 2013, a freight train carrying light crude oil from North Dakota derailed in the town of Lac-Mégantic (Quebec, Canada), causing explosions, fires and the spill of 7000m3 of oil. This catastrophe resulted in 47 human deaths, the destruction of the city's downtown and significant environmental pollution. Indeed, oil infiltrated soils and contaminated Lac-Mégantic (lake) and the Chaudière River. Floating oil was observed up to 186 km from Lac-Mégantic in the direction of the St. Lawrence River. This emergency is considered the worst case of an inland oil spill in North America. Remediation actions included excavation and biotreatment of contaminated urban soils and monitoring of contaminated water and sediments along the Chaudiere River.
A multidisciplinary group of researchers initiated a vast research program in order to use this case as a learning instrument for various environmental studies that included emergency actions and environmental impact evaluation. This presentation aims to present the emergency and some of the environmental quality monitoring results and research works to come.

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27 Sett. 2016 - Stefano Puglisi

20160927 Seminario Puglisi

Conservazione delle risorse genetiche forestali e gestione forestale sostenibile:
importanza di un'integrazione interdisciplinare

Presenta: Stefano Puglisi

CNR Istituto di Bioscienze e Biorisorse, Bari

L'attività di ricerca svolta nel settore della genetica delle popolazioni di specie arboree forestali, finalizzata allo studio ed alla salvaguardia delle risorse genetiche di tali specie, viene sinteticamente esposta insieme con le innovazioni metodologiche utilizzate e con i risultati più importanti conseguiti nelle indagini su Pinus halepensis Mill. e Pinus sylvestris L. Viene anche illustrata la futura attività di ricerca nel settore della gestione forestale sostenibile, in un'ottica di integrazione interdisciplinare con la genetica delle popolazioni, al fine di enfatizzare ed approfondire l'obiettivo della tutela delle risorse genetiche fra i criteri da seguire per garantire agli ecosistemi forestali lo svolgimento delle funzioni loro attribuite – compresa la funzione produttiva – senza comprometterne la conservazione.

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22 Sett. 2016 - Maria Urbanska

20160922 Seminario Urbanska

Strangers among indigenous - alien species of mussels in Poland

Presenta: Maria Urbańska

Institute of Zoology,Poznań University of Life Sciences

Freshwater mussels are among the most threatened groups of organisms in the world, mainly due to habitat modifications and exotic species invasion. The best known examples of strangers among native species are Dreissena polymorpha, Corbicula fluminea and Sinanodonta woodiana.
Firstly recorded in Polish artificial heated waterbodies, as can be expected for a warm water species, the Chinese pond mussel Sinanodonta woodiana (Lea 1838) started colonizing waterbodies with natural thermal conditions since at least 1992. Since then it has spread to more than 30 sites in Poland, suggesting that it could become common quite shortly because it accommodates to national conditions very easily. This situation may result in changing the population state of native species and the habitat transformations as mussels play a key role in the formation and functioning of aquatic biocenoses.
To characterize its life conditions in the invaded area studies were performed on morphological characteristics, reproduction, habitat preferences, density and distribution, genetic variability, natural enemies, parasites and symbionts. Current knowledge about Polish populations will be shown, as well as cross-country survey's statistical results concerning habitat preferences, morphometrical features and growing rate.
The knowledge of Sinanodonta woodiana spread, biology and habitat characteristics determining its occurrence should be a key task to enable prediction of its impact and to find ways to limit its spread.

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