Soil has always been vital to humans and fundamental to human health since it is the main resource for food production. Soil is not the only element that affects the food supply, but it is an extremely important resource needed in overcoming this complex issue. The importance of soils and their characteristics on human health has been growing in interest as the essentiality of soil for human life becomes increasingly clearer. Chemical and biological soil properties can modify the production and the quality of crops, and they are directly influenced by environmental and anthropic changes. The supply of potentially toxic substances as a result of the anthropic activities is an increasing phenomenon. The negative effects induced by contaminants on the soil functionality may affect human and animal health, soil microorganisms, growth and quality of plants. The increasing occupation of soil has lead to an inclusion of green and agricultural spaces in urbanized areas that do not have the environmental characteristics of complex ecosystems. The management of these problems needs a correct interpretation of the phenomena that occur in urban ecosystems, starting from the dynamics of soil biocenosis.